Open Access Highly Accessed Research

Antibacterial activity of Aquilaria crassna leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis by disruption of cell wall

Sirilak Kamonwannasit1, Nawarat Nantapong2, Pakarang Kumkrai1, Prathan Luecha3, Sajeera Kupittayanant4 and Nuannoi Chudapongse1*

Author Affiliations

1 School of Pharmacology, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand

2 School of Microbiology, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand

3 Department of Pharmacognosy and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand

4 School of Physiology, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand

For all author emails, please log on.

Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2013, 12:20  doi:10.1186/1476-0711-12-20

Published: 20 August 2013

Abstract

Background

Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte has been traditionally used in Thailand for treatment of infectious diseases such as diarrhoea and skin diseases for a long time. The main objectives of this study were to examine antibacterial activity of the Aquilaria crassna leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis and its underlying mechanism. The antioxidant activity and acute toxicity were studied as well.

Methods

Antioxidant activities were examined by FRAP, ABTS and DPPH scavenging methods. Antibacterial activity was conducted using disc diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by dilution method. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was reported as the lowest concentration producing no growth of microbes in the subcultures. Morphological changes of the microbe were observed by scanning electron microscopy, while an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation was evaluated by phase contrast microscopic analysis. Bacterial cell wall integrity was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Acute toxicity was conducted in accordance with the OECD for Testing of Chemicals (2001) guidelines.

Results

The extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. Staphylococcus epidermidis was susceptible to the extract with the MIC and MBC of 6 and 12 mg/ml, respectively. The extract caused swelling and distortion of bacterial cells and inhibited bacterial biofilm formation. Rupture of bacterial cell wall occurred after treated with the extract for 24 h. Acute toxicity test in mice showed no sign of toxicity or death at the doses of 2,000 and 15,000 mg/kg body weight.

Conclusion

The aqueous extract of Aquilaria crassna leaves possesses an in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, with no sign of acute oral toxicity in mice, probably by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis and inhibiting biofilm formation.

Keywords:
Aquilaria crassna; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Antioxidant; Anitbacterials; Cell wall; Acute toxicity